воскресенье, 27 января 2013 г.

3. Maqams. Judaean Mountains

In Arabic, "maqam" means "place, stop, stand". This name is used for the tombs of eminent Sheikhs and other Muslim leaders. For Muslims it is a holy place. Therefore maqam is also called "wely" - "shrine". Usually the travelers stopped and prayed at such tombs, and could even spend the night here (which happened quite often) if there was a special room for that. Maqams were not only the places of worship, but also guard points from which the roads were monitored and landmarks for travelers. Therefore, as a rule, maqams were built on the top of a mountain or a hill, on the most prominent place. However, there were exceptions and some maqams were built not on the top, but in valleys, at important sections of roads and at crossroads.


According to W. Thomson, "The domes cover the shrines of reputed prophets, or holy men; a sort of patron saints very common in this region. Each village has one or more, and, besides these, every conspicuous hill-top has a wely or mazar, beneath spreading oak, to which people pay religious visits, and thither they go up to worship and to discharge vows" (1859, I 203–204).

Not all maqams represent an actual burial place of a Sheikh. Maqams were often erected in memory of a particular activist long after his death. The maqams of such kind are, for example, maqam Abu Huraira in Yavne, maqam Abu ‘Ubayda and Mu‘az ibn Jabal in Emmaus, and some others.

Until 1948, all maqams were working, kept by the locals: Palestinian Arabs. After the establishment of the state of Israel many Arab-Palestinian villages ceased to exist: their inhabitants were either banished or had to leave their homes. Muslim shrines have been left to the mercy of fate.

Maqam Imam ‘Ali
مقام الإمام علي
מקאם אימאם עלי

This maqam is seen by everyone driving along the 1st Highway from Jerusalem to Tel Aviv. The only part of the main Israeli Highway (between road Interchanges Shoresh and Sha'ar ha-Gai) where it splits, leaving some space between the traffic lanes. This is where Maqam Imam ‘Ali is. Actually, it is an open air mosque (musalla). A small prayer area surrounded by the wall of 2.2m high, except for the northern part of it, where the height of the wall is only 0.5m. The mihrab in the south wall rises slightly above the walls. A small Sabil (1.6 x 1.65 m) with a dome and an arched opening on the north side is adjacent to the mosque from the northeastern side.


The sabil

Judging by the photo of the 1930s, there used to be another court to the north of the prayer area, also surrounded by a wall and with a high arched entrance. Now the yard is completely destroyed.



The purpose of this shrine appears to have been to offer a place of prayer, rest and refreshment for travellers on the road (Petersen 2001, 155). It is unlikely that a cenotaph ever stood inside the mosque. This building was just dedicated to Imam ‘Ali.


Plan of the maqam (from the book by A. Petersen)
In 2010, the construction work is carried out "Al-Aqsa Foundation" (Photo).

Aerial photo 2014

There is the following legend about Imam ‘Ali. One day he met a little girl who was crying bitterly. He asked her: "Why are you crying, little girl?" "Mom told me to bring a jug of milk", she said, "but I dropped the jug and spilled all the milk. What am I going to tell my mother?" Imam ‘Ali felt sorry for the girl; he took the handful of the ground in the place where the spilled the milk and squeezed it in his hands, so that the milk little by little was dripping back into the jug. Girl’s joy was indescribable. But the ground was in pain and said to Imam ‘Ali: "Remember, the day will come when we get even." And when the imam died, he was buried in the ground with all the honors. The next day the earth rejected the body of ‘Ali. Then the body was buried at another place, but the same happened. The situation repeated several times. The ground refused to accept the body of Imam ‘Ali. Therefore, there are several tombs with his name. Imam’s camel was the one to help him find the peace at last. He was wandering all over the country for a very long time to find a burial place for his master. Finally, in one of the places camel sank wearily to the ground: here that the body of Imam ‘Ali was buried and the place became sacred to the Arabs.

Photo 2015

Visited: 15.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Olesnitsky 1878, II 257; Palmer 1881, 323 (Sheet XVII); Baedeker 1882, 146; Stewardson 1888, 130; Guide 1888, 109; Meistermann 1907, 51; Canaan 1927, 14, 18, 39; Petersen 2001, 154–155
Wikipedia: Sha'ar HaGai; INature: Judaean Mountains Park

Maqam Sheikh ‘Abd el-‘Aziz
مقام الشيخ عبد العزيز
קבר שייח' עבד אל-עזיז

V. Guérin refers to this structure as "la koubbeh d'un santon vénéré dans le pays la dénomination d'Abd el-‘Aziz" (Judee I 263). T. Canaan points out that near Maqam there is a water reservoir, hewn in the rock (1927, 10). In his time Conrad Schick considered Maqam Sheikh Abd el-‘Aziz a possible burial place of the biblical Rachel, since the Arab people call it "Kubbat Rachel" – Rachel's Tomb (Palästina-Vereins IV 248–249).

Now more than a half of maqam is in ruins. Dimensions: 6.75 x 6.15 m. Entrance is on the north side, mihrab is in the south wall. In one of the side walls might once have been a small window. Cenotaph is also lost.


The mihrab


Route: in Mewassaret Zion climb the Mount Ahiram till the memorial tower; to the north of it there is a water tank and the next to it a fence with the gate. Keep straight forward for 100 meters on the right side of the road. The gates in the fence are sometimes closed.


Visited: 12.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Guérin, Judee I 263; Palästina-Vereins II 142; Palästina-Vereins IV 248–249; Palmer 1881, 326 (Sheet XVII); Stewardson 1888, 137; Canaan 1927, 10, 11
Wikipedia: Mount Ahiram; The Archaeological Survey of Israel

Maqam Sheikh Ahmad
مقام الشيخ أحمد
קבר שייח' אחמד

T. Canaan reports that Sheikh Ahmad was one of the negro saints, the so-called "darky" or "Nubian". T. Canaan enumerates five other black sheikhs whose tombs became shrines, adding that he doesn’t not know any female negro saints (1927, 238). It was ascertained that the Maqam Sheikh Ahmad had been built on the remains of a Byzantine church. According to C. Conder who visited Kuriet el-Sa'ideh in October 1873, "The Mukam of Sheikh Ahmed is near a group of three very fine oaks and two carob-trees, which occupy the crest of the ridge, and arc very conspicuous on all sides." (SWP III 135)

View from the south-east


R. Macalister in 1904 described the maqam so: "North of the complex is an open, grassy space in which stands a square shrine or wely of the ordinary type. The capital of a column built upside down over the door, and here sketched (not to scale), no doubt belongs to some part of the earlier structures... Neither can I find any traces of interments, except it be a half-effaced Muslim tomb or two within the precincts of the wely itself." Besides that Macalister saw the Sacred Enclosure or Sacred temenos next to the maqam (Quarterly statement XXXVI 249–253).

Photo of 1904 (from the book by R. Macalister)

Ancient oaks are still there. In Hebrew this place is called Hurvat Se'adim. But the maqam is in ruins. It is a perfect square with dimensions: 6.80 x 6.80 m. No chapiter is present. Extant parts of the building are: part of the north wall with the entrance; part of the western wall with a rather large window; and part of the south wall with the remainder of the mihrab. Instead of the east wall there is a pile of stones. The location of cenotaph cannot be determined, because the interior is blocked up with fragments of collapsed walls and dome. The floor of the maqam is at a depth of about one meter under the present surface.

View from the south. Entrance to the maqam

Entrance to the maqam. View from the inside

View from the west

The eastern wall of the maqam. View from the inside

The remains of the mihrab in the southern wall

Ancient oaks near the maqam

Route. Westwards from moshav Aminadav along the paved road, past the Kennedy Memorial, further to Hurvat Se'adim, located nearly a kilometer far from the moshav. Nearby there are the ruins of the buildings from Byzantine and Early Muslim ages, and a popular tourist attraction – Shvil Ayanot ("Path of the springs").

Location of the object on Google Maps
References: SWP III 135; Quarterly statement XXXVI 249–253; Canaan 1927, 4, 34, 103, 237–239
Wikipedia: Hurvat Seadim; INature: Hurvat Seadim Reserve

Maqam Sheikh Ahmad el-Hubani
مقام الشيخ أحمد الحوباني
קבר שייח' אחמד אל-חובאני

It’s located between moshav Bar Giora and Tzur Hadassah at Khirbet Huban (Hubin, el-Hubein); Shvil Israel passes nearby. The monument has a complicated structure (A. Petersen uses the word "complex"). People got from the entrance hall (C) straight into the prayer room (B) with a large arch on the east side. On the walls of this room there are many modern drawings of geometrical shapes which look like plants. One cannot say with certainty whether Muslims left these drawings. There are no inscriptions, either Arab or Jewish. In the south wall of the prayer room there is entrance to the burial chamber (A) crowned by a dome, where once stood the cenotaph. The western side of maqam adjoins to a large room with an arched vault, which might have been a zawiya, i.e. monastic cell (D).



Plan of the maqam (from the book by A. Petersen)

View from the east

View from the north-east

View from the south-west

Entrance to the hall (C)

The prayer room (B) and the entrance to the burial chamber (A)

The monument is in unsatisfactory state. Not that it might face a further destruction in the nearest future, but still it needs to be preserved.

Not far from the maqam V. Guérin in 1863 saw a small Palestinian village; now only ruins remained on its place (Judee II 383). About the Sheikh Ahmad el-Hubani himself we know nothing but the name.

A. Petersen has a little confusion over this maqam. First of all, he uses a wrong name for it: Maqam Shaykh Musafir. Secondly, he incorrectly locates it on Khirbet Kafr Sum, which is situated at the distance of 1.5 km to the north-east from Khirbet Huban (2001, 195). But the description of maqam, its plan and the photo in the Petersen’s book show that we are still undoubtedly talking about the tomb of Sheikh Ahmad el-Hubani at Khirbet Huban. Meanwhile, at Khirbet Kafr Sum indeed there are the remains of the Muslim building, but it is not a maqam but a rural mosque. We’ll talk about it below (14. Abandoned Mosques: Mosque in Khirbet Kafr Sum).

Petersen 2001, 195:
Route. Turn to the south off the Highway 386 between road junctions Nes Harim and Tzur Hadassah, in the direction of the Shvil Israel, then keep for about a kilometer westwards along the road 4x4 (see the map).

Visited: 31.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Guérin, Judee II 383; Palmer 1881, 327 (Sheet XVII); Stewardson 1888, 138; Petersen 2001, 195
The Archaeological Survey of Israel; Hadashot Arkheologiyot

Maqam Sheikh Ahmad el-‘Umari
مقام الشيخ أحمد العمري
קבר שייח' אחמד אל-עומרי

This maqam is situated not far from the Kfira Spring and is located on the hillside, which is quite unusual for a maqam. A high cliff overhangs the tomb, and it almost completely nestled in the shade of a huge fig tree. Nearby are the ruins of a deserted Palestinian village. Entrance to the maqam is on the east side, on the lintel (a crossbeam above the entrance) there is an inscription in Arabic written with red paint: "Allah". Cenotaph didn’t survive. Mihrab in the south wall is painted with the same red paint, indicating that Muslims visit the shrine. Israelis believe that they come from the Palestinian territory through some breach in the Separation barrier.

View from the north-east

View from the north-west

View from the west

View from the west

The mihrab

Route: to the right of the Highway leading to Nataf, a kilometer short of the settlement, there is a path with green markings. Moving along it, you'll find yourself in a gorgeous ravine where Nahal Kfira flows; and 1.5 kilometer further you’ll find the ‘Ein Kfira. The required maqam is situated not far from it.

Location of the object on Google Maps

Maqam Sheikh Badr el-Din el-Jimali
مقام السلطان بدر
קבר שייח' באדר אל-ג'מלי

In the beginning of the 19th century, Badr el-Din Muhammad el-Jimali came to Palestine from somewhere in Khorasan or Hejaz as a dervish and became famous as a prominent Muslim scholar and a wonder-worker. He is credited with the discovery of almost all of the springs on the outskirts of Jerusalem. He had five or eight sons, and each of them had achieved something in the field of faith. His daughters-healers Badriya, Humaidiya and Salamiya also were extremely famous. Sheikh Badr died in 1253 and was buried in the village which after that was named Deir el-Sheikh – "Residence of a Sheikh." Legend has it that all the holy men and even animals visited his grave.

Photo of 1980s (from the book by A. Petersen)


The spacious prayer hall with a large arch is adjacent to a small maqam of almost cubic shape (5.15 x 4.30 x 2.90 m). Cenotaph of a Sheikh was in a special arched recess in the south wall of the maqam and was separated by a stone wall of one meter high. Up until 1948 the tomb of Sheikh Badr enjoyed a great fame and was the place of pilgrimage. A layer of white plaster is still present on the walls of the maqam.

View from the north. Left — the prayer hall

View from the west

Interior

The plan of the religious complex of Deir el-Sheikh (from the book by A. Petersen)

After seeing round the Deir el-Sheikh in 1993 A. Petersen came to the conclusion that the religious complex had been developing for hundreds of years, but the oldest part of it is the crypt located in the south-eastern part of the complex. There are several tombstones in this crypt organized in two rows. Ogive indicates, perhaps, the Crusaders period. At the second stage of construction Maqam of Sheikh Badr was built. The last to arise was a prayer hall, which is located in the southwest corner of the complex and is the largest structure of the Mamluk period, or the beginning of the Ottoman Empire (2001, 138).

The prayer hall

The chamber adjacent to the prayer hall

The pavilion in the north-western part of the complex

Route. To get to the ruins of the Arab village Deir el-Sheikh is not an easy task. One’d better pull off the 386 Highway at the Rephaim bridge, drive along Derech Sorek till the Bar Giora railway station, and then walk up the path with blue markings for about 800 meters. It took us half an hour to climb it.

Visited: 31.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Palästina-Vereins II 160; SWP III 24; Palmer 1881, 293 (Sheet XVII)Stewardson 1888, 140; Quarterly statement XXVI 35; Canaan 1927, 285, 305–308; Perrot 1950, 194–195; Khalidi 1992, 288; Petersen 2001, 136–138; Ephrat 2008, 158
Wikipedia: Dayr al-Shaykh; The Archaeological Survey of Israel; Bar Giora

Maqam Sheikh Marzuk
مقام الشيخ مرزوق
קבר שייח' מרזוק

It is said that Sheikh Marzuk lived the life of a hermit and observed the surrounding Palestinian villages from the top of the mountain where he had settled. The residents of these villages brought him food and water, and in winter – warm clothes. After the death of the sheikh he was buried in the place where he used to live – on the top of the mountain, which is now called Giora. Maqam appears on the map of Palestine Exploration Fund (Sheet XVII) under the name Burj esh-Sheikh Marzuk. E. Palmer explains: "The tower of Sheikh Marzuk, pn;. meaning 'provided for'." (1881, 292)

It is interesting that the first Israeli mountaineers reached the summit of the Mount Giora only in the early 1980s, and it wasn’t until 1985 that this Muslim tomb was charted.


View from the south

View from the south-west

View from the north-west

Entrance to the maqam in the west

Interior

This structure can hardly be called a tower. West side of the maqam (7.50 x 7.30 x 3.70 m) is adjacent to a small annex (7.50 x 5.0 m) – a sort of a little courtyard. Its walls used to be partly composed of large stone blocks. Now these walls are almost completely destroyed. The entrance to the maqam is on the same west side. Above the entrance there is a massive lintel. Walls of the maqam are up to 1.70 m thick. The floor of the burial chamber is 1.30 m lower than the surface of the entrance, but there are no steps at all. In the room with a vaulted ceiling there is no mihrab or cenotaph. In the north wall there is a small window. Strictly speaking, the only reason that allows this strange structure to be classified as a maqam is a dome crowning it, more than ¾ of which is destroyed.

The dome

Traces of fire can be seen on the roof of the maqam

Those who had a barbecue here knew that they’d got on the Muslim shrine, because on the path stands the Parks Authority board with the information about this object on it.


Route. Turn left (north) off the Highway 386 Tzur Hadassah road junction, near a fire station, and keep eastwards for about a kilometer along a dirt road, partially coinciding with Shvil Israel. Then turn to the north-west, to the road 4x4 leading to Mount Giora. Move along the red markings. 500 m short of the top of the road turns right and goes down again. Here you can leave your car and walk up the path with green markings to the top of the Mount Giora where the maqam is. The path is of high complexity, only trained people can manage it.

Location of the object on Google Maps
References: Palmer 1881, 292 (Sheet XVII); The Archaeological Survey of Israel
INature: Mount Giora Reserve; The article about the Mount Giora; The article by Seffi ben Joseph about Sheikh Marzuk

Mausoleum of Sheikh Mustafa Abu Ghosh
ضريح الشيخ أبو غوش مصطفى
קבר שייח' אבו גוש מוסטפא

The building is described in detail by M. Sharon: "The old cemetery of village [Abu Ghosh] is located to the north of the Benedictine convent. The mausoleum of Mustafa Abu Ghоsh was built on the slope of the hill overlooking the convent and the valley with the village gardens. Some other members of the family were later buried around the mausoleum.

The building and its architectural and decorative details represent excellent masonry. It consists of one square room, about 4x4 m (inside), the interior of which is plastered and painted white, with the large tomb occupying most of its space. The plaster in and around the mihrab was moulded to form decorative elements: a stylized combination of a star inside a crescent in the midst of the mihrab, and over its arch, a rather primitive moulding representing two crescents on spikes flanking a spearhead. The entrance to the mausoleum is from the east through a gate with a perfect arch, to the left of which there is a little arched window.

Photo of 1920s (from the article by McCown)
View from the south

View from the south-east

The inscription above the arch

View from the east

Interior

The mihrab

The outer southern wall is the real facade of the mausoleum. It is carefully decorated with architectural elements: an arch surmounted by a gable, both protruding from the wall. The inscription was placed above the arch, in the gable. A hole was cut in the wall within the decorative arch, through which only the head can pass, to enable close viewing of the tomb inside. A slab of marble, 0.76 x 0.38 m, placed in a frame. The inscription is a poem; each line, made of two hemispheres, is set in carved fields. Delicate floriated decoration ornaments die right and left margins. 4 lines, Ottoman naskhi; small letters, dots and many vowels; in relief.

May the cloud of mercy water you, O noble Mustafa,
from Allah our endlessly benevolent Lord.
As you provided the thirsty ones seeking the fountain
with beverage of clean water, like flowing honey.
Greeted thy face, handsome (by God's) approval,
fragrance, fresh with nobility and love.
O, everyone who answers the call of God forthwith,
its date is with Allah in everlasting Garden.
The year 1280 (1863/4)" (CIAP, I 7–8)

Abu Ghosh. Aerial view of 1980s. In the center – the Crusader church, on the right – the mausoleum of Mustafa Abu Ghosh


Sheikh Mustafa, who lived in the middle of the 19th century, was a prominent member of the family of Abu Ghosh, they had Circassian descent. The family controlled the pilgrimage route from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and imposed tolls on all pilgrims passing through.

Visited: 16.08.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: McCown 1922, 50; Sharon, CIAP, I 7–8; Petersen 2001, 68

Maqam Sheikh Salama
مقام الشيخ سلامة
קבר שייח' סלמה

Although on the British maps of Palestine this building is called the tomb of Sheikh Salama, there is a speculation that in fact Salamiya, the youngest daughter of Sheikh Badr el-Din el-Jimali, was buried here. Maqam is located on the southern slope of the Mount Eitan, almost on the very bottom of the ravine, which is quite unusual. Structure is heavily damaged, it’s only the northern wall with an arched entrance that is left of it. W. Khalidi attributes this shrine to the former Palestinian settlement Khirbet el-Lawz, which was situated on the top of the mountain (1992, 300).




Route. Maqam is fifty meters away from Highway 386 (the junction between the power plant and the sewage treatment facility), but it is hidden behind the trees, and it was not easy for us to get there because Mount Eitan has steep slopes. There are no paths of any kind. But the maqam is accessible from the road 4x4, which goes around the Mount Eitan from the Sataf road junction.

Location of the object on Google Maps
References: Khalidi 1992, 300

Maqam Sitt Badriya
مقام السث بدرية
קבר סית בדריה

In Islam, as well as in Christianity (as opposed to Judaism), the cult of "holy women" – female scientists, prophets and healers – is highly developed. In Palestine there are many maqams dedicated to outstanding Muslim women. The status of these women was equated to the status of sheikhs, that’s why they are often called sheikhnesses. The three daughters of Sheikh Badr al-Din el-Jimali – Badriya, Humaidiya and Salamiya – were such cult figures. After their deaths Sheikh's daughters were buried near three important roads which lead to Jerusalem since ancient times and thus "protected" the holy city of the Muslims. Humaidiya tomb is located in Gush Etzion. The location of the Salamiya’s tomb is not determined precisely; probably, it corresponds to the Maqam Sheikh Salama (see above).

Photo of 1920s


Plan of the mosque (from the book by T. Canaan)
Badriya died when her father was still alive and all the family still lived in the Sherafat village. Her tomb is situated in this village, to the south of Jerusalem, and is a part of the complex of a functioning mosque. Residents of Sherafat faithfully cherish the memory of sheikhness Badriya. According to the custom, her cenotaph is covered with goldweave cloth. "In el-Badriyeh, — says T. Canaan, — one tomb in the shrine itself is said to be hers, the other to the north that of her children, while the tomb outside her shrine is believed to be that of her husband. The caves below the shrine of es-sitt el-Badriyeh (Sarafat) are used for storing straw (tibn)." (1927, 23, 43) Badriya’s husband name was Ahmad el-Taiyar, he was her cousin, and afforded the honor of being buried near the famous couple. Their children, about whom we now know nothing, were also buried in the religious complex.

Entrance to the mosque

The burial chamber

Location of the object on Google Maps
References: Canaan 1927, 23, 43, 73, 306, 307; Wikipedia: Sharafat

Maqam Sitt Mana
مقام السث منع
קבר סית מנע

No less is the glory of the five sisters of the village Bir Ma'in Sheikh (or Neby): Hannaya, Zahra, Mana, Huria and Farha. They were revered as holy women and called respectfully Sitt-na, "Our Lady." When Sheikh of Bir Ma'in died, his sister hurried to come from Jisr Benat Yakub, or "Bridge of the Daughters of Jacob," which is on the Jordan to the south of Lake Huleh, in order to be present at his funeral. They all however died before reaching their destination, at different places in the neighbourhood, where their tombs are still the object of veneration (Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 78).

Nowadays where once was Bir Ma'in lies Israeli town Modi'in. Only two out of five tombs survived: Mana’s and Huria’s. "Kabr Sitt Mana" – "The Tomb of Lady Mana" is situated twenty meters away from the Highway surrounding the Modi'in. Its dimensions are modest: 4.00 x 3.85 x 1.50 m with a 0.40 m tall dome. The entrance to the tomb is only one meter high, one has to bend in order to enter. Mihrab is in the southern wall, the dome is partially destroyed. Now maqam is in a state of neglect, violently growing grass threatens to engulf him completely.

View from the Highway


View from the north

View from the south

The mihrab

Visited: 29.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 78, 80; Palmer 1881, 329 (Sheet XVII); Stewardson 1888, 141
Wikipedia: Tomb Sitt Mana

Maqam Sitt Huria
مقام السث حورية
קבר סית חוריה

One hot July day, we were driving along a semi-asphalted road from the Shilat road junction around Kfar Ruth moshav till we came to rest against the security fence that now separates Israeli from Palestinian Arabs who live on the "territories". Here we got out of the car and found ourselves standing on the ruins of a Palestinian village, part of which remained on Israeli territory; and the other part was over the fence. On the Israeli side – remains of a Byzantine monastery and a former Muslim shrine – tomb of Lady Huria.

View from the south

C. Conder was here in April 1873 and already then saw ruins only (SWP III 103). He calls the ruins of the maqam el-Huriyeh or Umm Rush.

In December of 1917 during the Palestinian campaign troops of general E. Allenby conquered al-Burj settlement which was located in the northern part of the present Modi'in, on Giv‘at Titora. Turkish troops retreated and consolidated at altitudes to the north-east of el-Budj. One Australian brigade advanced against them, the photographer of which, inter alia, captured maqam Sitt Huria. This is how it looked like in January of 1918.

View from the south. Protrusion in the southern wall survived up to present days. Source

View from the south-east. Source

View from west. Source

In a photo collection of the Australian War Memorial this maqam is called "the Old Mosque at El-Burj" but its location (not in the middle of the settlement but among ancient ruins), dome, typical protrusion in the southern wall and some other peculiarities leave no doubts that we see exactly the building, the remains of which are now located in Khirbet Kafr Ruth or Umm Rush. Judging by photographs of 1918, an entrance to maqam was from the western side where there was a wide arch. At present only a southern wall with a mihrab remained from the maqam. All the rest is completely destroyed.


View from the west

View from the north

View from the east

View from the south-east

The mihrab

Visited: 29.07.12
Location of the object on Google Maps

References: Robinson 1841, III 57; Clermont-Ganneau, ARP II 78; SWP III 103; Palmer 1881, 295 (Sheet XVII)

2 комментария:

  1. Ответы
    1. Drawings of geometric shapes which look like plants.
      Черт знает, что там кто чертит! А вообще любопытно. В других гробницах я такого не встречал.

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